Solid waste treatment technology involves physics, chemistry, biology, mechanical engineering and other disciplines. The main treatment technologies are as follows:
(1) Pretreatment of solid waste.
Before the comprehensive utilization and final treatment of solid waste, pretreatment is often needed to facilitate the next treatment. Pretreatment mainly includes crushing, screening, grinding, compression and other processes of solid waste
(2) Physical treatment of solid waste.
Use the physical and physicochemical properties of solid waste to separate useful or harmful substances. According to the characteristics of solid waste, gravity separation, magnetic separation, electric separation, photoelectric separation, ballistic separation, friction separation and flotation can be used.
(3) Chemical treatment of solid waste.
Recovery of useful materials and energy through chemical conversion of solid waste. Calcination, roasting, sintering, solvent leaching, thermal decomposition, incineration and electric radiation are all chemical treatment methods.
(4) Biological treatment of solid waste.
Use the function of microorganism to treat solid waste. The basic principle is to use the biochemical action of microorganisms to decompose complex organic matters into simple substances and transform toxic substances into non-toxic substances. Biogas fermentation and composting belong to biological treatment.
(5) Final treatment of solid waste.
Hazardous solid waste with no use value needs to be finally treated. The final treatment methods include incineration, landfill and marine disposal. Solid wastes need to be treated innocuously before they are landfilled and dumped into the ocean.