At present, there are two main ways of collecting municipal solid waste: mixed collection and classified collection. Whether it is mixed collection or classified collection, it should be realized by different collection methods.
According to the packaging mode, the collection methods of domestic waste can be divided into bulk collection and closed collection. Due to the serious pollution problems such as scattering, leaking and dust, the collection methods of bulk are gradually eliminated and replaced by closed collection, in which bag collection is the most common.
Domestic waste collection methods can be divided into door-to-door collection, fixed-point collection and regular collection according to the collection process.
1. Door-to-door collection
Door-to-door collection can be divided into two types: home-to-door collection and pipeline collection.
Cleaner’s clothes entrusted by the property company’s sanitation professional team or street sanitation team, or by the sanitation department
The cleaning staff of the service company collects the domestic waste from street residents, unit residents and stores along the street regularly, and then transports it to nearby garbage houses, which are transported by the professional team of environmental sanitation.
Pipeline Collection refers to the collection of domestic waste by waste discharge pipes used in multi-storey or high-rise buildings. Pipeline collection can be divided into two types:
1) pneumatic suction pipeline collection
Pneumatic suction pipeline collection is a kind of closed garbage collection based on vacuum turbine and garbage pipeline.
Garbage collection system, the main components of the system include dumping waste pipeline, waste input hole channel valve, garbage transportation pipeline, machinery center and garbage station.
2) General Pipeline Collection
Most of the multi-storey or high-rise buildings in our country used this method. Residents dumped the domestic waste from the entrance of the corridor.
After that, it is concentrated in the storage room at the bottom of the garbage duct, and then loaded and transported outside.
2. Fixed-point collection
Fixed collection includes garbage house collection, container garbage collection station collection, fixed garbage bin collection and small pressure station collection.
There are many ways.
(1) Garbage collection
After bagging, the household garbage is directly put into the garbage bin in the garbage bin room by the residents, and then transported by the garbage collection truck to the garbage transfer station or garbage disposal site.
Garbage bin collection is a kind of bagged, sealed and unscheduled collection method. This kind of collection method requires residents to pack garbage bags and send them directly to the garbage bin house, which is suitable for the situation where the garbage bin house is located near the residents’access channel outside the residential building.
The garbage in the garbage bin in the garbage bin room is collected mainly by the Back-loaded compression collection truck and the self-loading and self-unloading (side-loading) garbage collection truck. The rear part of the Back-loaded compression collection truck is equipped with lifting garbage bin mechanism, and the garbage in the bin is dumped into the hopper of the collection truck. Side-mounted collector, equipped with gantry lifting mechanism or manipulator, can automatically lift the garbage bin and pour it into the carriage.
(2) Collection of Container Garbage Collection Station
After bagging, the household garbage is sent by residents to designated places or containers placed downstairs or on both sides of the entry and exit passages. The garbage is sent to the container garbage collection station by rickshaw by the cleaning personnel, and then loaded into the container, and then transported by the garbage collection vehicle to the garbage transfer station or garbage disposal site.
Container garbage collection station is a kind of collection system which is packaged, sealed, containerized and unscheduled. The advantage of this collection system is that it is convenient for residents to throw garbage, and it is suitable for the use of containers to collect and transport domestic garbage. When garbage is loaded into containers and compressors are applied, the garbage loading capacity in containers can be increased and the economy of garbage transportation can be improved.
The garbage containers disposed in the garbage collection station and directly placed in residential areas are collected by the unloadable garbage truck in the carriage. The hook of the garbage truck can directly pull the container onto the frame and lock it.
(3) Fixed dustbin collection
This is a non-sealed garbage collection method, which is characterized by fixed cement bins and regular garbage collection. After bagging, the household garbage is sent to the cement garbage bin by the residents, and the garbage in the bin is cleared and transported by the garbage truck to the garbage disposal site or the garbage transfer station within a specified time.
Early built cement bins are usually rootless simple bins. When the wind blows, light materials such as plastics and waste paper are scattered everywhere. When it rains, the garbage is soaked by rainwater and leachate overflows. The management of simple bins is difficult, which affects the environmental sanitation around. The high moisture content of garbage in rainy season brings about the transportation and treatment of garbage. Difficulties.
(4) Small Compressed Domestic Waste Collection Station
In recent years, some small compressed MSW collection stations have been built in some residential areas or commercial outlets in some big cities. Compressors are installed in the compressed collection station, and the garbage collected from the residential area is loaded into the container by the compressor, and then the container is pulled away directly by the dischargeable garbage truck in the carriage. Its greatest advantage is that it can increase the loading capacity of containers and reduce the number of garbage collection points.
3. Timely collection
This is a way of garbage collection with the basic characteristics of regular garbage collection. After bagging, the garbage is sent to the garbage bin downstairs by residents, or collected by cleaning personnel at the designated time (placed in the garbage bin), sent to the garbage collection station (or clean station, clean building), and then regularly collected by garbage collection trucks and transported to the garbage disposal site or garbage transfer station.
This way mainly exists in the early built residential areas. Its characteristic is to cancel the fixed garbage bin and eliminate the secondary pollution in the process of garbage collection to a certain extent. But garbage must be collected and loaded into the garbage collection truck at a specified time. In the actual operation process, garbage queuing waiting for loading often occurs.
The waste pyrolysis gasification retort furnace developed by Luoyang Building Materials Architectural Design and Research Institute can be directly treated from the source of waste, saving transportation costs and not occupying a large amount of land.