Definition of hazardous waste
According to the law of the people’s Republic of China on the prevention and control of environmental pollution by solid waste and the measures for the administration of hazardous waste business license, hazardous waste refers to the solid waste with hazardous characteristics identified in the list of wastes or in accordance with the identification standards and methods for hazardous waste specified by the state.
The definition includes two meanings: one is that hazardous waste belongs to a part of solid waste (in other words, a substance that does not belong to solid waste must not belong to hazardous waste); the other is that hazardous waste must have hazardous characteristics. There are five common characteristics of hazardous waste, which are toxicity (including leaching toxicity and biological toxicity), corrosiveness, flammability and infection The solid waste with one or more hazardous characteristics is hazardous waste.
1. Mine tailings and mine solid waste:
It belongs to solid waste and does not belong to hazardous waste. According to: guidelines for declaration and registration of solid waste discharge and item 21 of list of industrial solid waste, the mine belongs to general industrial solid waste, and belongs to category I of general industrial solid waste, and the treatment and disposal method should give priority to mining pit and collapse area for backfilling.
In part 6 of the new version of the standard for the identification of solid wastes – General principles (gb34330-2017), it is clearly proposed that the mining waste, tailings and coal gangue in the mined out areas of metal mines, non-metal mines and coal mining and beneficiation that meet the class I general solid wastes in gb18599 shall not be managed as solid wastes, so they are also hazardous wastes.
If the mine solid waste is mixed with other hazardous wastes, its hazardous characteristics sometimes need to be determined according to the identification standard of hazardous wastes; another kind of cyanide tailing and cyanide sludge produced in the process of gold mining (this process has been listed in the process banned and eliminated by the state) are hazardous wastes.
2. Paper white mud and carbide slag:
It belongs to solid waste and does not belong to hazardous waste. According to the guidance for declaration and registration of solid waste discharge and item 3 of the list of industrial solid waste, carbide slag is a calcium containing solid waste, mainly composed of calcium hydroxide, which belongs to general industrial solid waste, and the first process of general industrial solid waste can be added and used by water sludge Enterprises, and can also be put into a special industrial solid waste landfill for landfill treatment 。 Carbide slag is the leading enterprise in the application of flue gas desulfurization.
3. Natural gas purification desulfurizer and desulfurization gypsum:
It belongs to solid waste and does not belong to hazardous waste. The main component of natural gas desulfurizer is iron oxide, which does not have hazardous characteristics and is not included in the national records (2016). However, natural gas desulfurizer often contains sulfur dioxide or other organic components. Some provinces and cities will improve the management level by referring to hazardous waste in the management process.
The final components of ordinary FGD agent and FGD gypsum are mainly calcium sulfate, which are not hazardous wastes. If desulfurizer and desulfurized gypsum are mixed (such as heavy metal and incineration fly ash), they shall be managed according to the principle of hazardous waste mixing (the same below).
4. Antibiotic dregs (including the vast majority of traditional Chinese medicine residues):
It belongs to the category of solid waste and does not belong to hazardous waste. According to Article 23 of the regulations on the administration of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances (Order No. 442 of the State Council) and the measures for the administration of the production of psychotropic substances (for Trial Implementation) (gsyja  No. 528), the active liquid produced in the production shall be destroyed and recorded by the enterprise itself. In the list of industrial solid wastes, the residues of traditional Chinese medicine belong to the 15th category of wastes in the list.
What needs to be treated differently is: the waste mother liquor, distillation residue or reaction residue generated in the purification or chemical reaction process of API belong to the hazardous substance category of medical waste HW02.
5. Water based mud:
It belongs to solid waste and does not belong to hazardous waste. In the list of national hazardous wastes (2016 Edition), for the drilling mud prepared continuously in the oil and natural gas exploitation industry, the waste drilling mud, oil sludge oil foot, oil-based rock cuttings and oil containing mud finally generated belong to the hazardous waste hw08, with the waste codes of 071-001 (or 002) – 08 and 072-001-08 respectively.
In the 2016 edition of the national list of hazardous wastes, there is no reference to the waste problem of preparing drilling mud with water-based continuous phase, that is, the water-based mud record, so it does not belong to the category of hazardous waste.
6. Coal tar from coal to gas and coal tar from coke production enterprises:
According to the current national list of hazardous wastes (2016 Edition), the coal to gas industry (water gas generator) and gas purification (including condensation) process oil residue belong to hw11 type hazardous wastes. If the coal tar produced by coke production industry fails to meet the requirements of coal tar standard (Yb / t5075-2010). In addition, coal tar is produced in the process of gas production during condensation. If the coal tar standard (Yb / t5075-2010) is met, naphthalene, anthracene oil and wash oil will be used for exemption from management (please note: only the utilization process is not included in the management of hazardous waste, but collection, storage, transportation and treatment of hazardous waste are not exempted).
It is analyzed that the coal tar produced in the coke production process should be classified as hazardous waste, because the acid tar and other tar (hw252-011-11) produced in the special production process of the national list of hazardous wastes (2016 version) are hazardous waste, and the “other tar” should include coal tar. If there is a mistake in the explanation, other tar should be understood as tar and benzene (or benzene series) containing substances that can not meet the coal tar standard (Yb / t5075-2010). If “other tar” directly includes coal tar, the list does not need to be specifically expressed as other tar. In the process of management, coal tar that has passed the environmental assessment and meets the product quality requirements cannot be easily identified as hazardous waste.
7. Electroplating wastewater and sludge with heavy metals exceeding the standard:
Electroplating sludge is a kind of hazardous waste, and the waste types often belong to hw17, hw21, hw22 and hw23 at the same time. The prevention and control scope of electroplating waste pollution with heavy metals exceeding the standard is included in the waste water management, which is not applicable to the scope of the law of the people’s Republic of China on the prevention and control of environmental pollution by solid wastes, and is not included in the hazardous waste management. However, according to the two high judicial interpretations (2016 version), if the class I heavy metals (such as lead, mercury, chromium, cadmium, or class II heavy metals (such as nickel Copper, zinc, manganese and vanadium) exceeding the standard by more than 10 times shall be prosecuted for criminal responsibility in addition to administrative penalty.
8. Aluminum ash produced in pyrometallurgy:
It belongs to solid waste and does not belong to hazardous waste. The aluminum ash produced in the process of pyrometallurgy can often be directly mixed into the smelting furnace. According to the fifth part of the guidelines for identification of substances – General principles (gb34330-2017), if it is directly returned to the original production process, it belongs to the production raw materials, and the hazardous wastes not produced by solid mainly include the skimming slag or primary smelting slag (fluorine exceeds the standard) produced by pyrometallurgy process, and the generated by electrolysis process The code of salt slag, dross or electrolytic cell is 321-022 (023-026) – 48 respectively.