In recent years, soil heavy metal detection technology has been developed rapidly, but there is still a big gap with the actual demand, and there is a huge room for improvement in some key technologies. The spectral method can be used to analyze and determine the heavy metal content in various complex environmental samples with high sensitivity and accuracy. However, considering that most of them need large-scale expensive instruments, high cost of analysis, need to be digested, analysis time is long and safety factors, its application in the determination of heavy metal content in soil has not been popularized yet. The electrochemical method is used in the determination of heavy metal content in soil Trace element detection has good research and application, but there are still some problems in the current detection process, such as ion interference, wave peak overlapping, etc. in addition, soil sample digestion is needed in the pretreatment process of soil samples, and the use of strong acid may bring secondary pollution to the soil. How to overcome these problems has become the key to its popularization and application; new detection technologies show good response But considering that these technologies are relatively new, the preparation of specific antibodies is difficult, terahertz and other equipment are relatively expensive at present, these all urgently need interdisciplinary support of biology, optics and other disciplines and carry out more collaborative innovation research. These problems indicate the direction for the further research and development of soil heavy metal detection technology.

Pretreatment technology of heavy metal detection samples in soil is a very important link, which can have a great impact on the accuracy of the analysis results. In order to achieve a unified pretreatment technology for heavy metal samples, a large number of analysts need to further explore and study, synthesize the advantages of several methods, and effectively avoid the disadvantages, so as to propose an efficient, simple and non polluting treatment method.